Oncology basically refers to the study and treatment of cancer. This branch of medicine entails the comprehensive knowledge in diagnosing, classification and subsequent selection of the best treatment option for any identified cancer invasion.
Types of Cancer
Bone Cancer:
Osteosarcoma is a cancer that starts in the cells of the bone where new cells are reproduced. It disrupts the formation of bone and could lead to osteoporosis and other bone related discomfort.
Prostate cancer:
It affects the seminal fluid producing gland found in men called prostate. It affects elderly men mostly, but some rare cases have been reported in young adult lately.
Breast cancer:
This is formed in the cells of women breast; it mostly starts out as a lump. Since Its hereditary in nature, females that have the history of breast cancer in their family are more susceptible to this type of cancer.
Basal Cell Cancer:
This is a form of skin cancer that basically starts from the basal cells. This is one of the list risky type of cancer and the main cause of it is extensive exposure to sunlight.
Melanoma:
This is a type of skin cancer that begins with the skin pigmentation. It discolors the skin by forming different color pigmentation on the skin. Exposure to VU has been given as the major cause of such phenomenon.
Colon Cancer:
This is cancer that affects part of the gastrointestinal tract, the colon or rectum precisely. It affects the biological activities in the GIT and impede digestion of food substances.
Lung cancer:
This is a type of cancer that starts from the lungs and it’s been believed to be caused by smoking, hence, making it more rampant among smokers. The stages of lung cancer depend on the extent of which it has spread to other organs of the body.
Leukaemia:
This is cancer that affects the blood-forming tissues, which subsequently leads to the formation of abnormal white blood cells and progressively impede the defence mechanism of the leukocyte.
Lymphoma:
This refers to the lymphatic system cancer. It falls in the group of blood cancer that forms lymphocytes which are a type of white blood cells. Symptoms such as lymph nodes enlargement, fever, sweating heavily at night, weight loss, feeling tired all the time and itching are noticed in this type of cancer.
Treatment and Prevention
There is currently no single treatment for cancer known, as such; multiple therapeutic options are combined to achieve a successful treatment. Most importantly, the choice in treatment chosen by the oncologist solely depends on the following:
• Type of cancer
• Patient health status
• Age
• Stage of the cancer invasion
• Other medical histories.
After proper consideration of the earlier mentioned factors, the best treatment option can then be selected from the following categories: radiation, chemotherapy, surgery, immunotherapy, hormone therapy, or gene therapy.
Preventive Measure
Prevention of the occurrence of some types of cancer can be achieved through lifestyle modification – in case of a smoker- and dietary changes. An adoption of a healthier way of life will drastically reduce the risk of having some types of cancer.
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